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Ph.D.   - U.S. diplomatic history, University of Texas, 1980

M.A.    - History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1971

B.A.     - History, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1970

Professional Positions

The Cato Institute

     Vice President, Defense and Foreign Policy Studies, 1996-present

     Director of Foreign Policy Studies, 1987-1996

     Foreign Policy Analyst, 1985-87

Professional Management Resources, Inc.

     Director of Policy Alternatives Project, 1983-85

The University of Texas

     Research Associate with the Ideas and Action Project, directed by former national security adviser     Walt W. Rostow, 1980-83

Smart Power: Toward a Prudent Foreign Policy for America (Washington: Cato Institute, 2008).

America’s Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2006).

The Korean Conundrum: America’s Troubled Relations with North and South Korea, coauthor, (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2004)

Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington’s Futile War on Drugs in Latin America (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2003).

Peace & Freedom: Foreign Policy for a Constitutional Republic (Washington: Cato Institute, 2002).

The Captive Press: Foreign Policy Crises and the First Amendment (Washington: Cato Institute, 1995).

Beyond NATO: Staying Out of Europe's Wars (Washington: Cato Institute, 1994).

A Search for Enemies: America's Alliances after the Cold War (Washington: Cato Institute, 1992).

Books -- Editor

INATO Enters the 21st Century (London: Frank Cass Ltd. 2001). 

China’s Future: Constructive Partner or Emerging Threat? co-editor, (Washington: Cato Institute, 2000). 

NATO's Empty Victory: A Postmortem on the Balkan War (Washington: Cato Institute, 2000). 

NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality, co-editor, (Washington: Cato Institute, 1998). 

Delusions of Grandeur: The United Nations and Global Intervention (Washington: Cato Institute, 1997). 

The Future of NATO (London: Frank Cass, Ltd., 1995). 

The U.S.-South Korean Alliance: Time for a Change, co-editor, (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1992). 

America Entangled: The Persian Gulf Crisis and Its Consequences (Washington: Cato Institute, 1991). 

NATO at 40: Confronting a Changing World (Lexington, MA:  Lexington Books, 1990). 

Collective Defense or Strategic Independence?: Alternative Strategies for the Future (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books,  1989).

Ph.D. Dissertation

The Dissenters:  American Isolationists and Foreign Policy, 1945-1954, University of Texas, 1980 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1981).

Book Chapters

“The Great Powers and the Security Council,” in Reinventing the United Nations, eds. Ajit M. Banerjee and Murari R. Sharma (New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2007). 

“Democracy and War,” in Opposing the Crusader State: Alternatives to Global Interventionism, eds. Robert Higgs and Carl P. Close (Oakland, Independent Institute, 2007). 

“Dealing with a Resurgent China,” in China Cross Talk: The American Debate over China Policy since Normalization, ed. Scott Kennedy (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003). 

“Kosovo and Cyprus: The U.S. Double Standard,” in The United States & Cyprus: Double Standards and the Rule of Law, eds. Eugene T. Rossides and Van Coufoudakis (Washington: American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2002). 

“High-Handed Nation Building: The West Brings ‘Democracy’ to Bosnia,” in Exiting the Balkan Thicket, ed. Gary T. Dempsey (Washington: Cato Institute, 2002). 

“NATO’s Search for Relevance,” in NATO after Fifty Years, eds. S. Victor Papacosma, Sean Kay, and Mark R. Rubin (Wilmington, Del: SR Books, 2001). 

“Collateral Damage: The Wide-Ranging Consequences of America’s Drug War,” in After Prohibition: An Adult Approach to Drug Policies in the 21st Century, ed. Timothy Lynch (Washington: Cato Institute, 2000). 

“America’s Stance Toward Europe: Moving Away from a NATO-Centered Policy,” in The Future of the American Military Presence in Europe, ed. Lloyd J. Matthews (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2000). 

"The Amorphous 'New NATO' and America's Real European Interests," in NATO at Fifty: Perspectives on the Future of the Atlantic Alliance, ed. Susan Eisenhower (Washington: Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1999). 

"Eagle in the China Shop: The Economic Consequences of U.S. Global Meddling," in Economic Casualties: How U.S. Foreign Policy Undermines Trade, Growth, and Liberty, eds. Solveig Singleton and Daniel T. Griswold (Washington: Cato Institute, 1999). 

"From Intervenor of First Resort to Balancer of Last Resort," in Asia After the Miracle: Redefining U.S. Economic and Security Priorities, eds. Selig S. Harrison and Clyde V. Prestowitz Jr (Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998). 

"Trade and the Troubled U.S.-China Relationship," in China in the New Millennium: Market Reforms and Social Development, ed. James A. Dorn (Washington: Cato Institute, 1998). 

"Ending the International Drug War," in How to Legalize Drugs, ed. Jefferson M. Fish (London: Jason Aronson, 1998).  

"Wishful Thinking and Strategic Evasions: The Campaign for NATO Enlargement," in NATO and the Quest for Post-Cold War Security, ed. Clay Clemons (New York: Macmillan, 1997). 

"Learning to Live with Nuclear Proliferation," in Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 21st Century, eds. David Boaz and Edward H. Crane (Washington: Cato Institute, 1993). 

"Direct Military Intervention," in Intervention into the 1990s:U.S. Foreign Policy in the Third World, ed. Peter J. Schraeder (Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner, 1992). 

"The U.S. Should Reduce Its Military Role," in The New World Order: Opposing Viewpoints, ed. Matthew Polesetsky (San Diego:  Greenhaven, 1991). 

"An Independent Course," in America's Purpose, ed. Owen Harries (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1991). 

"China and America in a Changing World Order," in Economic Reform in China: Problems & Prospects, eds. James Dorn and Wang Xi  (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). 

"America's China Policy: The Virtue of Patience," in U.S.-China Policy (Washington: International Security Council, 1990). 

"Overt Military Intervention," in Intervention in the 1980s: U.S. Foreign Policy in the Third World, ed. Peter J. Schraeder  (Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner, 1989). 

"Beyond U.S. Paternalism: A New Security Strategy for the Pacific Basin," in An American Vision: Policies for the 90s, ed. Edward H. Crane and David Boaz (Washington: Cato Institute, 1989). 

"Two Cheers for SDI," in Assessing the Reagan Years, ed. David Boaz (Washington: Cato Institute, 1988).

Journal Articles and Published Studies

“A New Era of Turbulence in the Balkans?” Mediterranean Quarterly 19, no 3 (Summer 2008). 

Staying Alive: Twilight States in the International System, National Interest 94 (March-April 2008). 

“Wild Card: A Democratic Taiwan,” China Security, 4, no.1 (Winter 2008). 

“The Iraq War and Iranian Power,” (coauthor with Malou Innocent) Survival, 49, no. 4 (Winter 2007-2008). 

“Escaping the Trap,” International Affairs 53, no. 4 (Fall 2007). 

“Taiwan’s Defense Budget: How Taipei’s Free Riding Risks War,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 600, (September 13, 2007) (Coauthor with Justin Logan). 

“Iraq and Vietnam: Some Unsettling Parallels,” Mediterranean Quarterly, 18, no. 3 (Summer 2007). 

“Mexico’s Drug Trade,” Aspenia, 36, April 2007. 

“Contra Iran: A View to a Coup?” (coauthor with Jessica P. Ashooh) National Interest, No. 88 (March-April 2007). 

“Escaping the Trap: Why the United States Must Leave Iraq,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 588, February 14, 2007. 

“Toward a Grand Bargain with Iran,” Mediterranean Quarterly, 18, no. 1 (Winter 2007). 

“Great Expectations: Washington, Beijing, and the North Korean Nuclear Crisis,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 18, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007). 

“Iran’s Nuclear Program: America’s Policy Options,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 578, (September 20, 2006). 

“Future War: Taiwan,” National Interest 84 (Summer 2006). 

“The Imperial Lure: Nation Building as a U.S. Response to Terrorism,” Mediterranean Quarterly 17, No. 1 (Winter 2006). 

“Mexico Is Becoming the Next Colombia,” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 87, (November 15, 2005).

“Taiwan’s Troubles,” Harvard International Review (Autumn 2005). 

“Rethinking Nonproliferation,” National Interest (Summer 2005) (coauthor with Charles V. Pena). 

“Missed Opportunities: The 9/11 Commission Report and U.S. Foreign Policy,” Mediterranean Quarterly 16, no. 1 (Winter 2005). 

“How the Drug War in Afghanistan Undermines America’s War on Terror,” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing, no. 84, November 10, 2004. 

“A Hedging Strategy Is Needed toward North Korea,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 16, no. 1 (Spring 2004). 

“President Bush’s Muddled Policy on Taiwan,” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing, no. 82, (March 15, 2004).

“Enemy or Ally? China’s Challenge to Washington,” Aspenia, No. 23 (Winter 2003-2004). 

“Living with the Unthinkable: How to Coexist with a Nuclear North Korea,” National Interest, No. 74 (Winter 2003-2004). 

“Restless Empire: Washington’s Goals and Problems in the Islamic Arc,” Mediterranean Quarterly, 14 no. 4 (Fall 2003). 

“The Bush Administration’s Security Strategy: Implications for Transatlantic Relations,” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 16, no. 3 (October 2003). 

“Options for Dealing with North Korea,” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 73, (January 9, 2003). 

“Unsavory Bedfellows: Washington’s International Partners in the War on Drugs,” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 71, (August 1, 2002). 

“Managing the U.S.-Russian-Chinese Strategic Triangle,” Li Mes: Revista Italiana Di Geopolitica 3 (Summer 2002). 

“Kosovo and Macedonia: The West Enhances the Threat,” Mediterranean Quarterly 13 (Winter 2002). 

“Plan Colombia: The Drug War’s Latest Morass,” Cato Policy Report 23, No. 5 (September-October 2001). 

“Memo for President Bush: Let the European Union Deal with the Balkan Snake Pit,” Li Mes: Revista Italiana Di Geopolitica 2 (Spring 2001). 

“Going Too Far: Bush’s Pledge to Defend Taiwan,” Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 66, (May 30, 2001). 

“Waist Deep in the Balkans and Sinking: Washington Confronts the Crisis in Macedonia,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no.397, (April 30, 2001). 

“Postwar Strategy: An Alternative View,” Joint Force Quarterly, no. 27 (Winter 2000-2001). 

“Jackboot Nation Building: The West Brings ‘Democracy’ to Bosnia,” Mediterranean Quarterly 11 (Spring 2000). 

“The Alliance Does Not Serve America’s Interests,” Li Mes: Revista Italiana Di Geopolitica 4: (Fall 1999). 

"That Was Then, This Is Now: Toward a New NSC-68," SAIS Review 19 (Winter-Spring 1999). 

"Dangerous Diversions: The U.S. Military's New Missions," Mediterranean Quarterly 10 (Winter 1999). 

"Roiling Asia: U.S. Coziness with China Upsets the Neighbors," Foreign Affairs 77 (November-December 1998). 

"Washington's Foreign Policy Hypochondria," Brown Journal of World Affairs 5 (Summer-Fall 1998). 

"Let Taiwan Defend Itself," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 313, (August 24, 1998). 

"Managing a Great Power Relationship: The United States, China, and East Asian Security," Journal of Strategic Studies 21 (March 1998). 

"Time Bomb for an Expanded NATO: Hungary and Its Neighbors," Mediterranean Quarterly 9 (Winter 1998) (coauthor with Barbara Conry).

"NATO's Expensive Trip East: The Folly of Enlargement," Foreign Affairs 77 (January-February 1998) (coauthor with Amos Perlmutter). 

"Washington's Smothering Strategy: American Interests in East Asia," World Policy Journal 14 (Winter 1997-1998). 

"NATO Expansion Flashpoint No. 2: The Border between Hungary and Serbia," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 45, November 24, 1997 (coauthor with Pavel Kislitsyn). 

"NATO Expansion Flashpoint No. 1: The Border between Poland and Belarus," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 44, September 16, 1997 (coauthor with Andrew Stone). 

"The Mediterranean Cauldron," Mediterranean Quarterly 8 (Spring 1997). 

"The Domino Theory Reborn: Clinton's Bosnia Intervention and the 'Wider War' Thesis," Foreign Policy Briefing no. 42, (August 15, 1996). 

"Strategy Creep in the Balkans: Up to Our Knees and Advancing," National Interest 44 (Summer 1996) (coauthor with Amos Perlmutter). 

"Smoke and Mirrors: The Clinton-Hashimoto Summit," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 41, (May 16, 1996). 

"Unjust and Unsustainable: The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship," NIRA Review (Winter 1996). 

"Looking for Trouble: NATO's Out of Area Missions," Mediterranean Quarterly 6 (Fall 1995). 

"Paternalism and Dependence: The U.S.-Japanese Security Relationship," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 244, (November 1, 1995). 

"Holbrooke Horror: The U.S. Peace Plan for Bosnia," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 37, (October 27, 1995). 

"Toward Strategic Independence: Protecting Vital American Interests," Brown Journal of World Affairs (Summer 1995). 

"Unlearning the 'Lessons' of World War II," NIRA Review (Summer  1995). 

"Conflicting Agendas and the Future of NATO," Journal of Strategic Studies 17 (December 1994). 

"The Balkan Crisis and the Faulty 1930s Analogy," Mediterranean Quarterly 5 (Fall 1994). 

"Ending South Korea's Unhealthy Security Dependence," Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 6 (Summer 1994). 

"The Unintended Consequences of Afghanistan," World Policy Journal 11 (Spring 1994). 

"U.S. Troops in Macedonia: Back Door to War?"  Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 30, (March 17, 1994). 

"Closing the Nuclear Umbrella," Foreign Affairs 73 (March-April 1994). 

"Staying out of Potential Nuclear Crossfires," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 199, (November 24, 1993). 

"Declaring an Armistice in the International Drug War," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 26, (July 26, 1993). 

"Setting a Dangerous Precedent in Somalia," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 20, (December 18, 1992). 

"Strategic Independence," New Perspectives Quarterly 9 (Summer 1992). 

"Foreign Policy Masochism:  The Campaign for U.S. Intervention in Yugoslavia," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 19, (July 1, 1992). 

"A New Proliferation Policy," National Interest 28 (Summer 1992). 

"Fighting Trim," Policy Review (Spring 1992). 

"The Case for U.S. Strategic Independence," Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 16, (January 16, 1992). 

"Avoiding New World Order Crusades," in U.S. Foreign Policy Options and Australian Interests, Pacific Security Research Institute Occasional Paper no. 7 (1992). 

"The New World Disorder," Foreign Policy 84 (Fall 1991). 

"The U.S. Military Presence in the Philippines: Expensive and Unnecessary," Cato Foreign Policy Briefing no. 12, (July 29, 1991). 

"Time for Congress to Vote on the Issue of War in the Gulf,"  Cato Institute Foreign Policy Briefing no. 5, (December 14, 1990).  (co-author with Christopher Layne). 

"Arabian Nightmares: Washington's Persian Gulf Entanglement,"  Cato Institute Policy Analysis, No. 142, November 9, 1990. (co-author with Christopher Layne). 

"An Independent Course," National Interest 21 (Fall 1990). 

"Etats-Unis: Vers Un Nouvel Isolationnisme?" [The United States:  Toward a New Isolationism?] Politique Internationale 48 (Summer 1990). 

"Perilous Panacea: The Military in the Drug War," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 128, (February 15, 1990) (co-author with R. Channing Rouse). 

"A Fortress Built on Quicksand: U.S. Policy toward Pakistan,"  Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 80, (January 5, 1987). 

"U.S. NATO Policy at the Crossroads: The Great Debate of 1950-1951," International History Review 7: (August 1986). 

"U.S. Aid to Anti-Communist Rebels: The 'Reagan Doctrine' and Its Pitfalls," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 74, (June 24, 1986). 

"Global Interventionism and a New Imperial Presidency," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 71, (May 16, 1986). 

"Pursuing a Strategic Divorce: The United States and the ANZUS Alliance," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 67, (February 27, 1986). 

"The U.S. Campaign against International Narcotics Trafficking:  A Cure Worse Than the Disease," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 63, (December 9, 1985). 

"The United States and Third World Dictatorships: A Case for Benign Detachment," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 58, (August 15, 1985).